NURS 6521 WK 6 Diabetes and Drug Therapy Walden University
NURS 6521 WK 6 Diabetes and Drug Therapy Walden University Sample Nursing Paper
Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
NURS 6521 WK 6 Diabetes and Drug Therapy Walden University
•Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources.
•Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
•Select one type of diabetes.
•Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
•Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments.
NURS 6521 Advanced Pharmacology Week 6 Assignment Classification of Diabetes
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
•Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
•Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
•Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
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Explore a sample solution on NURS 6521 WK 6 Diabetes and Drug Therapy Walden University Nursing Paper
Paper Type: Coursework
Course Level: Undergraduate
Subject Area: Nursing
# Pages: 3
Diabetes is a hormonal problem that affects children, youths, adults, and elderly patients. As Papatheodorou et al. (2016) explain, there is a rapid rise in the prevalence of diabetes internationally. Moreover, the health problem under discussion causes serious complications that call for the need for immediate treatment (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). Effective treatment of diabetes can be achieved through non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. The type of therapeutic intervention to be used largely depends on the type of diabetes and patient’s behavioral factors (Chamberlain et al., 2016). Ideally, the goal of every treatment approach is to eliminate both short-term and long-term impacts of the disease on patients.
Healthcare professionals should understand the variations among different types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. It is important to note that all forms of diabetes are characterized by an imbalance in blood sugar concentration. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune health problem that occurs when the body’s immune system attacks beta cells of the pancreas, thereby preventing them from secreting insulin. This results in a build-up of glucose in the blood. The fact that diabetes type 1 is caused by the absence of insulin makes it be called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes type 1 is called juvenile diabetes if it occurs in children (American Diabetes Association, 2010).
Conversely, diabetes type 2 normally results from either insulin resistance or abnormal secretion of the hormone. Insulin resistance leads to over-accumulation of glucose in the blood. The condition is commonly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women, and it is associated with insulin resistance and under-secretion of insulin by the pancreas. These changes are usually attributed to hormonal changes. The problem often disappears after delivery (American Diabetes Association, 2010).
The type of diabetes that has been selected for analysis in this paper is type 2 diabetes mellitus. One of the pharmacological agents that are used to treat the chosen medical condition is a group of drugs known as insulin secretagogues (Marin-Penalver et al., 2016). The two substances that fall under the named category of drugs are meglitinides and sulfonylureas. The two drugs are oral tablets that do not require liquid preparation. Therefore, they are administered orally and must be taken on a daily basis. Their daily dose is as prescribed by the physician and it normally depends on the severity of the disease and the health status of the patient. Meglitinides and sulfonylureas act by increasing the secretion of insulin thereby helping to balance the concentration of blood sugar (Marin-Penalver et al., 2016).
The attending clinician must pay attention to dietary considerations when administering insulin secretagogues to a patient who is suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. For instance, the drugs undergo significant renal clearance which requires the patient to consume a lot of water on a daily basis to avoid putting too much pressure on the kidney (Marin-Penalver et al., 2016). Additionally, since most patients with diabetes mellitus are often overweight, they are often advised to maintain their caloric intake at a value between 500 and 1000 kcal of their energy requirements. Furthermore, a diabetic patient who is using insulin secretagogues should limit carbohydrate intake as this will help him or her to adjust appropriately to the abnormal level of glucose in the blood (Marin-Penalver et al., 2016).
Type 2 diabetes has got short-term and long-term impacts on the affected patients. Besides, the drugs that are used for disease treatment often have side effects that may complicate issues for the clients (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). Some of the short-term effects of the disease include physical inactivity, ill health, economic burden, as well as emotional and psychological problems. The long-term impacts of type 2 diabetes include stroke, blindness, heart disease, neuropathy, and kidney failure. These effects are usually experienced by patients who leave symptoms of the disease untreated for a prolonged period of time (American Diabetes Association, 2010). The common side effects of insulin secretagogues that may generate additional complications for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include abnormal weight gain and hypoglycemia (Marin-Penalver et al., 2016).
In summary, diabetes causes severe health complication and the healthcare practitioner should offer appropriate guidance to clinicians on how they can manage their conditions. Although several therapeutic interventions can be used to treat diabetes, many pharmacological agents have successfully been used to eliminate disease symptoms. There are four primary types of diabetes known as type 1, type 2, juvenile, and gestational diabetes. The type of the drug to be used largely depends on the type of diabetes and patient’s behavioral factors. One of the categories of drugs that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes is known as insulin secretagogues. These drugs act by increasing insulin secretion thereby balancing the concentration of blood sugar. The attending clinician must pay attention to dietary considerations when administering insulin secretagogues to a patient who is suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ideally, during their therapeutic relationship with the client, the healthcare professional must aim to eliminate the short-term and long-term impacts of the disease as well as the side effects of the drugs.
References: sample solution on NURS 6521 WK 6 Diabetes and Drug Therapy Walden University Nursing Paper
Arcangelo, V. & Peterson, A. (2006). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 33(1), S62-S69. doi:10.2337/dc10-S062
Chamberlain, J., Rhinehart, A. S., Shaefer, C., & Neuman, A. (2016). Diagnosis and management of diabetes: Synopsis of the 2016 American diabetes association standards of medical care in diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(8), 542-52. doi:10.7326/M15-3016.
Marin-Penalver, J., Martin-Timon, I., Sevillano-Collantes, C., & Canizo-Gomez, F. (2016). Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 1(17), 354-395. doi:10.4239/wjd.v7.i17.354
Papatheodorou, K., Papanas, N., Banach, M., Papazoglou, D., & Edmonds, M. (2016). Complications of diabetes 2016. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016, 6989453. doi: 10.1155/2016/6989453