NURS6521 Week 3: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
NURS6521 Week 3: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Free sample paper
As the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women, cardiovascular disorders account for 7 million hospitalizations per year (NCSL, 2012). This is the result of the extensive treatment and care that is often required for patients with these disorders. While the incidences of hospitalizations and death are still high, the mortality rate of cardiovascular disorders has been declining since the 1960s (CDC, 2011). Improved treatment options have contributed to this decline, as well as more knowledge on patient risk factors. As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.
NURS6521 Week 3 : Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Consider the following:
Case Study 1:
Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
- Atenolol 12.5 mg daily
- Doxazosin 8 mg daily
- Hydralazine 10 mg qid
- Sertraline 25 mg daily
- Simvastatin 80 mg daily
Case Study 2:
Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
- Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun
- Aspirin 81 mg daily
- Metformin 1000 mg po bid
- Glyburide 10 mg bid
- Atenolol 100 mg po daily
- Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain
Case Study 3:
Patient CB has a history of strokes. The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
- Glipizide 10 mg po daily
- HCTZ 25 mg daily
- Atenolol 25 mg po daily
- Hydralazine 25 mg qid
- Simvastatin 80 mg daily
- Verapamil 180 mg CD daily
- Review this week’s media presentation on hypertension and hyperlipidemia, as well as Chapters 19 and 20 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
- Select one of the three case studies, as well as one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
- Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
- Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
- Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.
With these thoughts in mind:
By Day 3
Post an explanation of how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you selected. Then, describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Finally, explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan.
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NURS6521 Week 3 : Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Free Sample Paper
Paper type: Coursework
Course Level: Undergraduate
Subject Area: Nursing
# Pages: 2
Cardiovascular disorders are among the leading causes of death in the United States. However, since the 1960s, there has been a rapid decline in the number of deaths due heart-related problems (CDC, 2017). One of the causes of such a decline is the increase in knowledge of risk factors by patients. In order to keep the incidences of cardiovascular diseases low, the advanced practice nurse must understand the factors that influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in clients. Besides, the nurse should use this knowledge to improve the drug therapy plan for their patients. In this paper, the author has applied the SOAPE (Subjective data, Objective data, Assess, Plan, Evaluate) approach in discussing how age can influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in a patient with strokes, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as described in case study 3.
The patient in case study 3 needs guidance on how he can effectively manage a combination of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health problems. The client is worried that lack of knowledge about the changes in the physiological changes of the body may contribute to negative health outcomes in the future.
The client has a history of strokes. Besides, he has just been diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, the attending clinician has recommended a number of drugs for the patient to enable him to effectively manage his health problems. The prescribed drugs include glipizide 10 mg po daily, HCTZ 25 mg daily, Atenolol 25 mg po daily, Hydralazine 25 mg qid, Simvastatin 80 mg daily, and Verapamil 180 mg CD daily
Assessment of the Problem
Age has a great influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient described in case study 3. Specifically, age affects the rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of individual drugs in the patient. Furthermore, age has an impact on the ability of particular drugs to act on the target sites in relation to the various health problems that the client is currently suffering from (Howland, 2009).
Age-related changes may negatively impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. The reason is that as the client ages, his body becomes inactive as a result of the loss of morbidity. These changes will slow down the rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and the excretion of the proposed pharmacological agents. Furthermore, the effect of the agents on the target sites is significantly reduced as the client grows older. This will eventually delay the ability of the patient to recover from hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension even if he adheres to the medication (Mangoni & Jackson, 2004).
Plan of Care
The patient can be helped to obtain maximum benefits from the drug therapy despite the anticipated impacts of the age-related changes. One of the ways through which the advanced practice nurse might improve the client’s drug therapy plan is by advising him to engage in physical exercise activities on a daily basis. The healthcare practitioner can also teach the patient about the importance of drug adherence and of eating a balanced diet (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2011).
Evaluation is an important step in the healthcare delivery process because it helps the advanced practice nurse to monitor changes in the patient’s health following the successful implementation of the care plan. Essentially, the nurse should conduct follow-up care in order to determine whether the patient is adhering to medication, engaging in physical exercise on a daily basis and whether he is feeding on a balanced diet. The healthcare professional should use the information to modify the care plan if necessary (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2011).
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References: Sample solution to NURS6521 Week 3: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders nursing paper
Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. (2011). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice. 3rd ed. LWW Publishers. ISBN-10: 1451111975
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Heart disease facts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
Howland, R. H. (2009). Effects of aging on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug processes. Journal of Psychological Nursing and Mental Health Services, 47(10), 17-18. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20090902-06.
Mangoni, A., & Jackson, S. (2004). Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: Basic principles and practical applications. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 57(1), 6-14. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.02007.x