Asthma and Stepwise Management assignment and sample paper
Asthma is a respiratory disorder that affects children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often provide treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes patients require immediate treatment making it essential that you recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, advanced practice nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients depending on individual patient factors. One method that supports the clinical decision-making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.
- Consider drugs used to treat asthmatic patients including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients. Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients including adults and children.
- Review Chapter 25 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text. Reflect on using the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management.
- Consider how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.
By Day 7
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
Asthma and Stepwise Management assignment and sample paper
- Describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for asthma patients, as well as the impact these drugs might have on patients.
- Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management.
- Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.
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NURS 6521 week 3 Assignment Asthma and Stepwise Management free essay sample paper
Sample solution to Asthma and Stepwise Management assignment paper
Paper type: Coursework
Course Level: Undergraduate
Subject Area: Nursing
# Pages: 3
Asthma refers to a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the airways in 6 per 100 people in the US (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). It is a leading cause of both outpatient and inpatient care accounting for more than 5000 deaths annually. Asthma is caused by a broad spectrum of factors such as coexisting sinusitis, nasal polyps, allergens, or even sensitivity to aspirin. Therefore, the initiation of a drug therapy for asthma must be based on individual characteristics, risk factors, and clinical assessment to identify the most effective therapy that would suit personal factors. Patients must also be aware of what triggers asthma to facilitate the adoption of a multifaceted approach to asthma management.
Asthma drug therapy
Medication control for asthma entails long-term drugs and quick relief medication. The long-term medications include inhaled steroids, leukotriene modifiers, nedocromil, methylxanthines, and cromolyn sodium among others (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). Quick-relief medications include the bronchodilators (Beta-adrenergic agonists) and the systemic corticosteroids. It is vital to acknowledge that asthma medication is available in various forms such as the in the oral forms, metered dose inhalers, and nebulizer solutions which facilitate the administration of a pre-determined dosage in relation to the severity of the condition and the patient’s characteristics.
Beta2- adrenergic agonists
Beta2- adrenergic agonists are effective in relieving bronchospasm. They are rescue medications used in short-term periods. They can be administered on oral forms, inhalation or through a nebulizer. The recommended dosage is about 2 to 3 inhalations for 3 to 4 hours. The long lasting beta-adrenergic agonists available last for 12 hours though they do not act rapidly after administration. They include pirbuterol, albuterol, levalbuterol, and Advair Diskus.
The inhaled (systemic) corticosteroids are effective in treating acute asthma exacerbation. The drugs are highly effective when administrated orally. The recommended dosage is 30 to 60 mg of prednisone on a dilly basis for 5 to 14 days (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). If the drugs are being used to treat short exacerbations, they should be used at 3 pm to boost efficacy. They include flunisolide, beclomethasone, budesonide triamcinolone, and triamcinolone acetonide.
Mast cell stabilizers
Mast cell stabilizers are recommended or long-term control of exercise-induced asthma and dosage provides protection for 1 to 2 hours before exposure to an irritant.
Leukotriene modifiers should be used for long-term asthma treatment and should either be taken one hour before meals or two hours after meals for effectiveness. They include montelukast sodium and zafirlukast.
A stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management essay sample paper: Do My Nursing Essay Paper
The stepwise approach begins with step 1 for intermittent asthma where the lowest level of control is required to maintain control with short-acting beta-adrenergic agonists (SABA) (Johnathan, 2014). The medications that can be used in the first step include albuterol, pirbuterol, and levalbuterol for quick relief of symptoms. At the first step, the patient has only intermittent symptoms and hence making SABA the only necessary treatment. Step 2 of the approach is used to treat mild asthma (persistent asthma) where patients are required to take anti-inflammatory drugs (inhaled corticosteroids) such as budesonide, flunisolide, mometasone and triamcinolone (Dunn, Neff, & Maurer, 2017). At the second step, patients should take low doses of ICS and SABA daily. Steps 3 and 4, are marked by an increase of ICS, the addition of (long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists) LABA or both. Steps 5 and 6 are marked by an increase of ICS dosage and a consideration of omalizumab. At step 6 the pet can be administrated chronic oral corticosteroids usually prednisone.
The stepwise approach to asthma therapy aims at regulating the number of medications and the frequency of the medications administered to achieve and maintain the desired level of control. The approach determines when medication should be decreased or increased for overall efficiency. Healthcare providers can, therefore, control the patient’s medical condition based on the underlying symptoms, reactions to different dosages and health outcomes that determine the dosage favorable at a particular time.
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References: Sample solution to Asthma and Stepwise Management assignment paper
Al Efraij, K., & FitzGerald, J. M. (2015). Current and emerging treatments for severe asthma. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 7(11), E522–E525. http://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.10.73
Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dunn, N. A., Neff, L. A., & Maurer, D. M. (2017). A stepwise approach to pediatric asthma. Journal of Family Practice, 66(5), 280-286.
Jonathan, D. P. (2014). Physician implementation of asthma management guidelines and recommendations: 2 case studies. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 114(11_suppl), eS4-eS15.
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (2007). Expert panel report 3 (EPR3): Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm