Foundational concepts in Neuroscience sample paper

Foundational concepts in Neuroscience sample paper

Foundational concepts in Neuroscience sample paper

1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.
2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
3. Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action.
4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a client in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action
Text to use for the order: Sample solution to Foundational concepts in Neuroscience
Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x
Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.
•Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”
•Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”
•Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

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Sample solution to Foundational concepts in Neuroscience

Paper type: Coursework
Course Level: Master
Subject Area: Nursing
# Pages: 3

Basic knowledge of neuroscience helps nurses to understand the mode of action of various psychopharmacologic agents. Nurses are always charged with the responsibility of administering drugs to patients in accordance with the doctor’s prescriptions. When performing this role, the healthcare practitioners must have an adequate understanding of the specific mechanisms through which various drugs work to generate their desired functions. Common issues that they should be conversant with are usually related to drug action, medication reactions, allergy, and associated side-effects (Stahl & Muntner, 2013). Generally, nurses’ psychopharmacological knowledge greatly impacts how nurses prescribe and administer medications to their clients.

One of the most crucial aspects of nursing as far as psychopharmacology is concerned is the agonist-to-antagonist mechanism of action of various drug agents. Ideally, substances that stimulate receptors are known as agonists, whereas those that inhibit their activity are referred to as antagonists. As Zimmer (2016) explains, neurotransmitters normally act by stimulating receptors with which they are destined to bind. It is important to remember that activation of receptors often results in either of the two possible options: disease occurrence on a reduction in disease symptoms (Katz, Hiranita, & Curdy, 2016). As opposed to neurotransmitters, drugs may either stimulate receptors or inhibit their activity based on a specific health condition that they are required to manage and control. In this respect, the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum occurs when a psychopharmacologic agent works to activate receptors while another one prevents the action of the drug at its receptor. Therefore, psychopharmacologic agents are either agonists or antagonists at their receptors (Stahl & Muntner, 2013; Zimmer, 2016).

A large percentage of psychopharmacological agents always target g-coupled protein receptors and iron-gated channels. There are some similarities and differences between the two channels. The main resemblance is that both iron-gated routes and g-coupled protein receptors regulate the transmission of drug particles into the synaptic cleft. Additionally, they have a great influence on their actions and the performance of psychopharmacologic agents (Uchida, Yamawaki, Bahk, & Jon, 2016). However, there are significant variations in their mode of action. For instance, iron-gated channels must bind to a ligand before they can create space on the synaptic membrane to allow transfer of psychopharmacological particles into the cell. Conversely, g-coupled protein receptors rely on their subunits to create a pathway through which drug agents can flow. The types of subunits that are activated in this case are greatly influenced by the health problems that need to be addressed (Stahl & Muntner, 2013).

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Although epigenetics is an emerging concept in nursing and healthcare fields, several authors have discovered that it plays a significant role in influencing psychopharmacologic action. Stefanska and MacEwa (2015) define epigenetics as a combination of mechanisms that either fine-tune or undermine gene activity. The author further asserts that the concept under discussion helps to keep cells active. Moreover, it encourages the development of some chronic illnesses such as cancer. The fact that epigenetics has a role to play in disease development makes it a very important target for psychopharmacologic action (Weinhold, 2006). For instance, some drugs today are manufactured to regulate activation of genes which are common in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conversely, some epigenetic drugs stimulate gene activity in cases when dormancy of those genes is associated with disease occurrence. Therefore, in order to effectively curb gene-related health conditions, pharmaceutical companies must be sure to manufacture drug agents which target specific gene activities (Stefanska & MacEwa, 2015). Sample solution to Foundational concepts in Neuroscience assignment

Psychopharmacological knowledge of nurses has a great impact on the way the healthcare practitioners prescribe and administer medications to their clients. Specifically, by understanding the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of psychopharmacological agents, nurses will ensure that they do not prescribe drugs with antagonistic properties. Furthermore, knowledge of the actions of g-coupled protein receptors and iron-gated channels helps nurses to understand how psychopharmacologic agents enter their target cells. Besides, by learning the association between epigenetics and pharmacologic action, nurses will understand how drugs work to regulate gene activities that cause disease (Stahl & Muntner, 2013). A good example of a case that demonstrates why a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action involves two health problems. The information is crucial when the nurse is attending to a patient who is suffering from Parkinson’s disease coupled with Schizophrenia. When prescribing drugs to this client, the healthcare practitioner should not recommend Chlorpromazine for management of Schizophrenia due to its antagonistic properties against dopaminergic drugs which are used to treat Parkinson’s disease (Borovac, 2016).

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In summary, neuroscience has a strong foundational basis in the field of psychopharmacology. The reason is that nurses must possess basic knowledge of neuroscience for them to effectively prescribe and administer drugs to their clients who are suffering from various mental health problems. Important issues that mental health practitioners should be conversant with include, agonist-to-antagonist mechanisms of psychopharmacologic agents, drug action at the synapse, and the role of epigenetics in influencing pharmacologic action. Generally, knowledge of these issues will help nurses to prescribe drugs effectively and to improve health outcomes for their patients.

References: Sample solution to Foundational concepts in Neuroscience paper

Borovac, J. (2016). Side effects of a dopamine agonist therapy for Parkinson’s disease: A mini-review of clinical pharmacology. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89(1), 37-47.

Katz, J., Hiranita, T. & Curdy, C. (2016). Blockade of cocaine receptor agonist self-administration by subtype-selective receptor antagonists. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 358(1), 109-124. doi:10.1124/jpet.116.232728

Stahl, S. M., & Muntner, N. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stefanska, B. & MacEwa, D. J. (2015). Epigenetics and pharmacology. British Journal of Pharmacology, 172(11), 2701-4. doi:10.1111/bph.13136

Uchida, H., Yamawaki, S., Bahk, W. & Jon, D. (2016). Neuroscience-based nomenclature (NbN) for clinical pharmacology and neuroscience. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, 14(2), 115-116. doi:10.9758/cpn.2016.14.2.115

Weinhold, B. (2006). Epigenetics: The science of change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(3), A160-A167.

Zimmer, L. (2016). Pharmacological agonists for more-targeted CNS radio-pharmaceuticals. Octotarget, 7(49), 80111-112. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.13418